Journal Articles

Truth Commissions after Economic Crises: Political Learning or Blame Game?, Political Studies, (Iosif Kovras, Shaun McDaid & Ragnar Hjalmarsson)


This article addresses an important but understudied aspect of the recent Great Recession in Europe: the institutional strategies political elites deployed to address accountability and learning, more specifically, truth commissions (TCs). We raise two overlapping, puzzles. The first concerns the timing of the decision to adopt an economic TC: whilst Iceland established a TC at early stages of the crisis, Greece and Ireland did so much later. What accounts for ‘early’ versus ‘delayed’ truth seekers? The second concerns variations in learning outcomes. Iceland’s commission paved the way for learning institutional lessons, but TCs in Greece and Ireland became overtly politicised. What accounts for these divergences? The article compares truth commissions in Iceland, Greece and Ireland and identifies two types of political learning – institutional and instrumental – related to the establishment of a TC. It argues political elites in countries with higher pre-crisis levels of trust in institutions and public transparency are more likely to establish economic TCs quickly; this is the ‘institutional logic’ of learning. The ‘instrumental logic’ of learning, in contrast, leads governments interested in apportioning blame to their predecessors to establish commissions at a later date, usually proximal to critical elections.

Perils of Accountability, (forthcoming) Cambridge Review of International Affairs, (Nadia Hilliard, Iosif Kovras, Neophytos Loizides)


This article interrogates a tension at the heart of the principle of accountability: accountability as a principle of non-impunity of public officials versus accountability as a form of bureaucratic organisation and control. Although these dimensions are distinguishable in the abstract, their ambiguity has led to an expectations gap among both citizens and elites. The historical legacies of previous policies can exacerbate this expectations gap, leading to a variety of value trade-offs, with the potential to undermine other political values, such as political learning, consensus-building, and citizens’ rights. We present examples of the trade-offs resulting from this expectations gap, focusing on moments of crisis in which such trade-offs can be seen most acutely, and highlight its role as a vehicle of global populism.

Country Reports

Policy Report Cyprus (Eng) (March 2018)

Policy Report Greece (Eng) (March 2018)

Policy Report Iceland (Eng) (March 2018)

Policy Report Ireland (Eng) (March 2018)

Policy Report Portugal (Eng) (March 2018)

Policy Report Spain (Eng) (March 2018)

Translated Country Reports

Policy Report Portugal (Port)

Policy Report Spain (Esp)

Policy Report Cyprus (Ελ)

Policy Report Greece (Ελ)

Other Reports

Individual Accountability & the IMF after the Crisis

Post-crisis accountability and policy learning in the EU

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